30th October 2019
Litigation and dispute resolution specialist provides practical advice arising from recent findings that electronic signatures and e-mail footers can constitute valid execution.
Walker Morris reported in September on the Law Commission’s recent conclusions that electronic signatures are valid; and that the law as it currently stands allows documents, including land contracts and deeds, to be executed with an electronic signature.
Shortly after publication of the Law Commission’s report, the judgment in the case of Neocleous v Rees  was also published, in which HHJ Pearce decided that:
Both the Law Commission and Manchester County Court have confirmed that the test as to whether a document has been ‘signed’ is whether the name (or mark) was applied with authenticating intent.
Authenticating intent was found in the Neocleous case for a number of reasons:
As a related point, Walker Morris has recently published advice on the risks associated with the informal and inadvertent formation of contracts .
Taking all of these points together, it is now more important than ever before that parties negotiating arrangements or agreements by e-mail – even including land contracts or other contracts with specific statutory signature requirements – understand the fundamental law of formation of contract, and appreciate that their automated e-mail signature could have a legally binding effect.
E-mail is currently the predominant means by which business is conducted, and many (if not most) corporates deploy e-mail footer rules so that the sender’s name and contact details – their electronic signature – is automatically applied to every message sent. All businesses should therefore be aware that every such e-mail contains an electronic signature that is capable of being legally binding.
There are still some circumstances however – where the law is more prescriptive as to the formalities or type of execution required – in which an e-mail footer alone would not constitute sufficient execution. (One example would be contracts by deed where the physical presence of a witness is required for attestation; another might be the formalities required for proper execution of a will under the Wills Act 1837.) Whilst the Law Commission’s report and Neocleous case therefore bring clarity to many commercial circumstances, some scope for uncertainty and error nevertheless remains.
Businesses should consider whether their e-mail footers should include a disclaimer of the possibility of the footer amounting to a signature for the purposes of land or other contracts; and/or whether all messages should be designated ‘subject to contract’. What wording might be appropriate, or whether such an approach is practical at all, will depend on the particular practices of different businesses, and so specialist, tailored advice will be required.
As technology advances, and as methods of communicating and of conducting business evolve, so too will the law and practice in relation to the execution of documents. The courts have already indicated that clicking an “I accept” tick box on a website or the header of a SWIFT message can constitute valid electronic signatures, but no doubt developments in AI and increased usage of online portals, social media, apps, auto-replies, chatbots and the like mean that further practical examples and guidance can be expected in due course. Walker Morris will monitor and report on developments.
In the meantime, the best advice will be for businesses to educate their staff:
For further information, advice or training on any of the issues covered in this e-mail, please do not hesitate to contact any member of Walker Morris’ Litigation & Dispute Resolution department.